At the first report of the outbreak, and fearing an attack on Durango itself (Guadiana), Governor Gaspar de Alvear arrested 75 local Indian leaders and ordered them executed. Schmal, John P. “The History of Indigenous Durango.’, Reff, Daniel T . In 1607, a smallpox epidemic combined with the simultaneous appearance of Halley's Comet, a portent of disaster, seems to have erased most remaining traces of the Acaxee's independence, although a few joined the Tepehuán Revolt in 1616.[10]. The Tepehuan of Chihuahua are the northern descendants of an aboriginal group whose broad territory ranged from north of the Río Verde in Chihuahua southward through Durango into the contemporary states of Nayarit and Jalisco. [6], In 1616, however, a messianic leader named Quautlatas who had been baptized as a Christian, arose among the Tepehuán. Please use the Get access link above for information on how to access this content. The revolt was crushed by 1620 after a large loss of life on both sides. The Tepehuán lived primarily in Durango State on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental. [5], In 1616, however, a messianic leader named Quautlatas who had been baptized as a Christian, arose among the Tepehuán. College of Arts & Sciences ", http://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/durango.html.

69, The Tepehuan Revolt of 1616: Militarism, Evangelism, and Colonialism in Seventeenth-Century Nueva Vizcaya, Charlotte M. Gradie, Sacred Heart UniversityFollow, The author presents the uprising of the Tepehuan Indians of northern Mexico as a pivotal test of both the Spanish institutions of conquest and Jesuit evangelism. Quaultlatas traveled throughout the mountains, his symbol a broken cross, preaching that the gods were angry because the Tepehuan had abandoned them and that they must kill or expel all Spaniards, especially the missionaries, from their lands. In The Tepehuan Revolt of 1616, Charlotte Gradie presents the uprising as a pivotal test of both the Spanish institutions of conquest and Jesuit evangelism, as well as the Tepehuan capacity for military and cultural resistance. As the Spanish perceived that they were providing both earthly and heavenly benefits to the Tepehuán, their explanation was that the revolt was the work of the devil. The unrest resulted in the deaths of more than 200 Spaniards, an uncounted number of slaves and servants, and 10 missionaries, eight of them Jesuits. He called himself a bishop and he promised that all those killed by the Spanish would rise again after seven days and that, after the Spanish were killed, the old gods would bless their land with good crops and fat cattle – cattle being a Spanish introduction. (Summer).

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between . The Acaxee spoke a Uto-Aztecan language and lived in the mountains, the Sierra Madre Occidental, and canyons of east central Sinaloa and western Durango, east of the city of present-day city of Culiacan. They needed additional labor to work in the mines. [16] Alvear abandoned the conciliatory “peace by purchase” policy of the Spanish and initiated a war of terror against the Tepehuan in which captured men, and sometimes women, were executed and women and children enslaved. Library resources about Acaxee Rebellion: Online books; Resources in your library; Resources in other libraries; Deeds, Susan. Accessibility Statement, DigitalCommons@SHU: Nuts & Bolts, Policies & Procedures. In the war against the Tepehuán, the Spanish abandoned their conciliatory "peace by purchase" policy and instead waged a war of "fire and blood" (fuego y sangre). In 1618 the missionaries, Jesuits and Franciscans, were allowed to return to their missions. Abstract The author presents the uprising of the Tepehuan Indians of northern Mexico as a pivotal test of both the Spanish institutions of conquest and Jesuit evangelism. However, the dispersed nature of the Acaxee settlements was a hindrance to utilizing Indian labor.

While the ultimately unsuccessful revolt may have been an effort by the Tepehuan warrior elite to reassert their authority, contends Dr. Gradie, it resulted in a reaffirmation of Jesuit missionary activity in Mexico and altered Spanish colonial methods in “New Spain.”. The Jesuits were relative newcomers to Mexico and the Indians of Sinaloa and Durango were their first major missionary efforts. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press. [13] On their part, the Tepehuán fought to return to their traditional ways of life, hoping that worshiping their old gods and practicing their old culture would halt the horrific loss of life due to European diseases and their virtual enslavement by the Spanish priests, miners, and encomenderos. Indians were to be supplied with food and tools and resettled into towns. [11] Moreover, the Jesuits worked closely with the Spanish encomenderos and miners to provide them with a steady supply of Indian laborers.[12]. As noted earlier, the Tepehuanes occupied an extensive area of the Sierra Madre Mountains from the southern headwaters of the Rio Fuerte to the Rio Grande de Santiago in Jalisco. > “The ‘Predicament of Culture’ and Spanish Missionary Accounts of the Tepehuan and Pueblo Revolts.”, Reff, Daniel T. “The Predicament of Culture” and Spanish Missionary Accounts of the Tepehuan and Pueblo Revolts.”, http://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/durango.html, http://www.essaytown.com/paper/taiping-rebellion-boxer-rebellion-introduction-last-centuries-13703, http://www.native-languages.org/tepehuan.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tepehuán_Revolt&oldid=914476801, Indigenous rebellions against the Spanish Empire, Wars involving the indigenous peoples of North America, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 September 2019, at 17:59.

We have created a browser extension. Quautlatas was also killed during the Spanish campaigns.

[14] In December he led an expedition traversing Tepehuán country and rescued 400 Spanish and Indian allies. Quautlatas was killed during the Spanish campaigns. Charlotte M. Gradie, The Tepehuán Revolt of 1616: Militarism, Evangelism, and Colonialism in Seventeenth-Century Nueva Vizcaya (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2000), pp. Quaultlatas’ appeal to his people blended Christian and Indian beliefs. [2] The Tepehuán and their neighbors may have been reduced in population by more than 80 percent by the epidemics, from a pre-Columbian population of more than 100,000 to fewer than 20,000, of which the Tepehuán may have been one-half of this total[3], During the Chichimeca war (1550–1590) the Tepehuán remained neutral although urged by the Chichimecas to join them in resistance to Spanish expansion. Other examples in the Americas and worldwide, include, the Pueblo Revolt, the Ghost Dance, and the Boxer Rebellion. The unrest resulted in the deaths of more than 200 Spaniards, an uncounted number of slaves and servants, and 10 missionaries, eight of them Jesuits. Salt Lake City: U of UT Press, 2000, pp 160-161; Further reading. [4] The Acaxee and Xixime were the first to have this new Spanish policy applied to them and the Tepehuán would be next. [13], The Tepehuán attack on the Spaniards, under six war chiefs, most notably Franciso Gogoxito, was well coordinated as nearly simultaneous attacks at missions and Spanish settlements occurred throughout the region.

Schmal, John P. “The History of Indigenous Durango.’, Reff, Daniel T . The…churches were burned. [3] An epidemic swept the region in 1576-1577, killing many thousands of Indians including possibly many Acaxee, and additional epidemics broke out in 1590 and 1596-1597. Gradie, Charlotte M. (2000) The Tepehuan Revolt of 1616. Thus began what Jesuit historian Andrés Pérez de Ribas called the revolt, "one of the greatest outbreaks of disorder, upheaval, and destruction that had been seen in New Spain...since the Conquest. Tepehuan continued to raid Spanish settlements and then retreat to the mountains for safety. Nevertheless, by 1615, a Jesuit could declare that the Tepehuanes “showed great progress and were in the things of our holy faith muy ladino" (much like the Spanish). Tepehuan continued to raid Spanish settlements and then retreat to the mountains for safety. [16] After Gogoxito's death major hostilities. CORE is a not-for-profit service delivered by

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